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But it is not the issuing of the threat that creates this unfreedom, and you are not unfree until the sanction described in the threat is carried out.

For this reason, Steiner excludes threats — and with them all other kinds of imposed costs — from the set of obstacles that count as freedom-restricting.

This conception of freedom derives from Hobbes Leviathan , chs. Many laws that are normally thought to restrict negative freedom do not physically prevent people from doing what is prohibited, but deter them from doing so by threatening punishment.

Are we to say, then, that these laws do not restrict the negative freedom of those who obey them? A solution to this problem may consist in saying that although a law against doing some action, x , does not remove the freedom to do x , it nevertheless renders physically impossible certain combinations of actions that include doing x and doing what would be precluded by the punishment.

The concept of overall freedom appears to play an important role both in everyday discourse and in contemporary political philosophy.

It is only recently, however, that philosophers have stopped concentrating exclusively on the meaning of a particular freedom — the freedom to do or become this or that particular thing — and have started asking whether we can also make sense of descriptive claims to the effect that one person or society is freer than another or of liberal normative claims to the effect that freedom should be maximized or that people should enjoy equal freedom or that they each have a right to a certain minimum level of freedom.

The literal meaningfulness of such claims depends on the possibility of gauging degrees of overall freedom, sometimes comparatively, sometimes absolutely.

Theorists disagree, however, about the importance of the notion of overall freedom. For some libertarian and liberal egalitarian theorists, freedom is valuable as such.

This suggests that more freedom is better than less at least ceteris paribus , and that freedom is one of those goods that a liberal society ought to distribute in a certain way among individuals.

Generally speaking, only the first group of theorists finds the notion of overall freedom interesting. How are we to make sense of the claim that the number of options available to a person has increased?

Should all options count for the same in terms of degrees of freedom, or should they be weighted according to their importance in terms of other values?

In the latter, does the notion of overall freedom really add anything of substance to the idea that people should be granted those specific freedoms that are valuable?

Should the degree of variety among options also count? And how are we to compare the unfreedom created by the physical impossibility of an action with, say, the unfreedom created by the difficulty or costliness or punishability of an action?

For this reason, theorists working on the measurement of freedom tend not to refer a great deal to the distinction between positive and negative freedom.

This said, most of them are concerned with freedom understood as the availability of options. Of the above-mentioned authors, only Steiner embraces both conditions explicitly.

We began with a simple distinction between two concepts of liberty, and have progressed from this to the recognition that liberty might be defined in any number of ways, depending on how one interprets the three variables of agent, constraints, and purposes.

Are these continued references to positive and negative freedom philosophically well-founded? If one thinks of freedom as involving self-direction, on the other hand, one has in mind an exercise-concept of freedom as opposed to an opportunity-concept this distinction comes from C.

If interpreted as an exercise concept, freedom consists not merely in the possibility of doing certain things i. The idea of freedom as the absence of constraints on the realization of given ends might be criticised as failing to capture this exercise concept of freedom, for the latter concept makes no reference to the absence of constraints.

However, this defence of the positive-negative distinction as coinciding with the distinction between exercise- and opportunity-concepts of freedom has been challenged by Eric Nelson As Nelson points out, most of the theorists that are traditionally located in the positive camp, such as Green or Bosanquet, do not distinguish between freedom as the absence of constraints and freedom as the doing or becoming of certain things.

In other words, if there really is nothing stopping me from doing x — if I possess all the means to do x , and I have a desire to do x , and no desire, irrational or otherwise, not to do x — then I do x.

An equivalent way to characterize the difference between such positive theorists and the so-called negative theorists of freedom lies in the degree of specificity with which they describe x.

For those who adopt a narrow conception of constraints, x is described with a low degree of specificity x could be exemplified by the realization of any of a large array of options ; for those who adopt a broad conception of constraints, x is described with a high degree of specificity x can only be exemplified by the realization of a specific option, or of one of a small group of options.

What perhaps remains of the distinction is a rough categorization of the various interpretations of freedom that serves to indicate their degree of fit with the classical liberal tradition.

Two Concepts of Liberty 2. The Paradox of Positive Liberty 3. Two Attempts to Create a Third Way 3. One Concept of Liberty: Freedom as a Triadic Relation 5.

The Analysis of Constraints: Their Types and Their Sources 6. The Concept of Overall Freedom 7. Is the Distinction Still Useful?

Two Concepts of Liberty Imagine you are driving a car through town, and you come to a fork in the road. The Paradox of Positive Liberty Many liberals, including Berlin, have suggested that the positive concept of liberty carries with it a danger of authoritarianism.

Two Attempts to Create a Third Way Critics, however, have objected that the ideal described by Humboldt and Mill looks much more like a positive concept of liberty than a negative one.

The Concept of Overall Freedom The concept of overall freedom appears to play an important role both in everyday discourse and in contemporary political philosophy.

Bibliography Introductory works Feinberg, J. Contemporary Liberal Perspectives , Cambridge: Polity [introduction to Berlin and MacCallum together with analysis of the conceptions of freedom of Nozick, Steiner, Dworkin and Raz].

A Philosophical Anthology , Oxford: Blackwell [large number of excerpts from all the major contemporary contributions to the interpretation of freedom, with editorial introductions.

The first of its nine sections is specifically on positive vs negative liberty]. Macmillan [comprehensive book-length introduction]. Blackwell [article-length general introduction].

Athlone Press [collection of essays on single authors, mostly historical]. Paradigm Publishers, [representative collection of contemporary essays, including Berlin and his critics, with editorial introduction and a guide to further reading].

Blackwell, ch 1 [article-length general introduction]. Oxford University Press [collection of up-to-date essays by major contemporary authors].

Other works Arneson, R. Berlin, Four Essays on Liberty , London: Berlin, Concepts and Categories. Philosophical Essays , ed. Oxford University Press, Reprinted in Berlin Bobbio, Politica e cultura , Turin: Essential Essays , Boulder CO.: Individual Autonomy and Socio-historical Selves , Cambridge: Essays on Individual Autonomy , Oxford: Themes from Marx , Oxford: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

The Responsibility View , Cambridge: Essays in Retrieval , Oxford: Partial reprint in 2nd ed. George Allen and Unwin. One Concept Too Many?

An Analysis , New York: A Reconstruction , Oxford, Blackwell. Opposite or Equivalent Concepts? A Theory of Freedom and Government , Oxford: Oxford University Press Phillips Griffiths, Of Liberty , Cambridge: Oxford University Press, reprinted in Miller Collected Papers — , Cambridge: History, Theory and Practice , London: Academic Tools How to cite this entry.

Enhanced bibliography for this entry at PhilPapers , with links to its database. Related Entries abilities action autonomy: Open access to the SEP is made possible by a world-wide funding initiative.

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